What is GST in India? Goods & Services Tax

GST is an Indirect Tax which has replaced many Indirect Taxes in India. The Goods and Service Tax Act was passed in the Parliament on 29th March 2017. The Act came into effect on 1st July 2017; Goods & Services Tax Law in India is a comprehensivemulti-stagedestination-based tax that is levied on every value addition.

In simple words, Goods and Service Tax (GST) is an indirect tax levied on the supply of goods and services. This law has replaced many indirect tax laws that previously existed in India.

GST is one indirect tax for the entire country.

What are the components of GST?

There are 3 taxes applicable under this system: CGST, SGST & IGST.

  • CGST: Collected by the Central Government on an intra-state sale
  • SGST: Collected by the State Government on an intra-state sale
  • IGST: Collected by the Central Government for inter-state sale

Illustration:
Let us assume that a dealer in Gujarat had sold the goods to a dealer in Punjab worth Rs. 50,000. The tax rate is 18% comprising of only IGST.
In such case, the dealer has to charge Rs. 9,000 as IGST. This revenue will go to the Central Government.

The same dealer sells goods to a consumer in Gujarat worth Rs. 50,000. The GST rate on the good is 12%. This rate comprises of CGST at 6% and SGST at 6%.
The dealer has to collect Rs. 6,000 as Goods and Service Tax. Rs. 3,000 will go to the Central Government and Rs. 3,000 will go to the Gujarat government as the sale is within the state.

GST Registration

In the GST Regime, businesses whose turnover exceeds Rs. 20 lakhs (Rs 10 lakhs for NE and hill states) is required to register as a normal taxable person. This process of registration is called GST registration.

For certain businesses, registration under GST is mandatory. If the organization carries on business without registering under GST, it will be an offence under GST and heavy penalties will apply.

Benefits of registering under GST?

A. For normal registered businesses:
1. Take input tax credit
2. Make interstate sales without restrictions
B. For Composition dealers:
1. Limited compliance
2. Less tax liability
3. High working capital